Engineering Physics | Unit 1 -6 Notes

Course Objectives:

To teach students basic concepts and principles of physics, relate them to laboratory experiments
and their applications

Examination Scheme:

In Semester : 30 Marks
End Semester: 70 Marks
PR: 25 Marks

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Unit I: Wave Optics

Impurities in water, hardness of water: Types, Units and Numericals. Determination of hardness (by EDTA method using molarity concept) and alkalinity, numericals. Ill effects of hard water in boiler – priming and foaming, boiler corrosion, caustic embrittlement, scale and sludge. Water treatment: i) Zeolite method and numericals ii) Demineralization method. Purification of water: Reverse osmosis and Electrodialysis.

Unit 2: Laser and Optic Fibre


  • Basics of laser and its mechanism, characteristics of laser
  • Semiconductor laser: Single Hetro-junction laser
  • Gas laser: CO 2 laser
  • Applications of lasers: Holography, IT, industrial, medical

Optic Fiber

  • Introduction, parameters: Acceptance Angle, Acceptance Cone, Numerical Aperture
  • Types of optical fiber- step index and graded index
  • Attenuation and reasons for losses in optic fibers (qualitative)
  • Communication system: basic building blocks
    Advantages of optical fiber communication over conventional methods.

Unit 3: Quantum Mechanics

  • De-Broglie hypothesis
  • Concept of phase velocity and group velocity (qualitative)
  • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
  • Wave-function and its physical significance
  • Schrodinger’s equations: time independent and time dependent
  • Application of Schrodinger’s time independent wave equation – Particle enclosed in infinitely deep potential well (Particle in RigidBox)
  • Particle in Finite potential well (Particle in Non Rigid box) (qualitative)
  • Tunneling effect, Tunneling effect examples (principle only): Alpha Decay, Scanning Tunneling Microscope, Tunnel diode
  • Introduction to quantum computing

Unit 4: Semiconductor Physics

Free electron theory (Qualitative)

  • Opening of band gap due to internal electron diffraction due to lattice Band theory of solids
  • Effective mass of electron Density of states
  • Fermi Dirac distribution function
  • Conductivity of conductors and semiconductors
  • Position of Fermi level in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors (with derivations based on carrier concentration)
  • Working of PN junction on the basis of band diagram
  • Expression for barrier potential (derivation)
  • Ideal diode equation
  • Applications of PN junction diode: Solar cell (basic principle with band diagram) IV Characteristics and Parameters, ways of improving efficiency of solar cell
  • Hall effect: Derivation for Hall voltage, Hall coefficient, applications of Hall effect

Unit 5: Magnetism and Superconductivity


  • Origin of magnetism
  • Classification of magnetism on the basis of permeability (qualitative)
  • Applications of magnetic devices: transformer cores, magnetic storage, magneto-optical recording


  • Introduction to superconductivity; Properties of superconductors: zero electrical
  • resistance, critical magnetic field, persistent current, Meissner effect
  • Type I and Type II superconductors
  • Low and high temperature superconductors (introduction and qualitative)
  • AC/DC Josephson effect; SQUID: basic construction and principle of working; Applications of SQUID
  • Applications of superconductors

Unit 6: Non Destructive Testing and Nanotechnology

Non Destructive Testing

  • Classification of Non-destructive testing methods
  • Principles of physics in Non-destructive Testing
  • Advantages of Non-destructive testing methods
  • Acoustic Emission Testing
  • Ultrasonic (thickness measurement, flaw detection)
  • Radiography testing


  • Introduction to nanotechnology
  • Quantum confinement and surface to volume ratio
  • Properties of nanoparticles: optical, electrical, mechanical

Applications of nanoparticles: Medical (targeted drug delivery), electronics, space and defense,