## Course Objectives:

To teach students basic concepts and principles of physics, relate them to laboratory experiments

and their applications

## Examination Scheme:

In Semester : 30 Marks

End Semester: 70 Marks

PR: 25 Marks

**Download Notes**

### Insem

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### Endsem

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**Syllabus**

### Unit I: Wave Optics

Impurities in water, hardness of water: Types, Units and Numericals. Determination of hardness (by EDTA method using molarity concept) and alkalinity, numericals. Ill effects of hard water in boiler – priming and foaming, boiler corrosion, caustic embrittlement, scale and sludge. Water treatment: i) Zeolite method and numericals ii) Demineralization method. Purification of water: Reverse osmosis and Electrodialysis.

### Unit 2: Laser and Optic Fibre

**Laser**

- Basics of laser and its mechanism, characteristics of laser
- Semiconductor laser: Single Hetro-junction laser
- Gas laser: CO 2 laser
- Applications of lasers: Holography, IT, industrial, medical

**Optic Fiber**

- Introduction, parameters: Acceptance Angle, Acceptance Cone, Numerical Aperture
- Types of optical fiber- step index and graded index
- Attenuation and reasons for losses in optic fibers (qualitative)
- Communication system: basic building blocks

Advantages of optical fiber communication over conventional methods.

### Unit 3: Quantum Mechanics

- De-Broglie hypothesis
- Concept of phase velocity and group velocity (qualitative)
- Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
- Wave-function and its physical significance
- Schrodinger’s equations: time independent and time dependent
- Application of Schrodinger’s time independent wave equation – Particle enclosed in infinitely deep potential well (Particle in RigidBox)
- Particle in Finite potential well (Particle in Non Rigid box) (qualitative)
- Tunneling effect, Tunneling effect examples (principle only): Alpha Decay, Scanning Tunneling Microscope, Tunnel diode
- Introduction to quantum computing

### Unit 4: Semiconductor Physics

**Free electron theory (Qualitative)**

- Opening of band gap due to internal electron diffraction due to lattice Band theory of solids
- Effective mass of electron Density of states
- Fermi Dirac distribution function
- Conductivity of conductors and semiconductors
- Position of Fermi level in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors (with derivations based on carrier concentration)
- Working of PN junction on the basis of band diagram
- Expression for barrier potential (derivation)
- Ideal diode equation
- Applications of PN junction diode: Solar cell (basic principle with band diagram) IV Characteristics and Parameters, ways of improving efficiency of solar cell
- Hall effect: Derivation for Hall voltage, Hall coefficient, applications of Hall effect

### Unit 5: Magnetism and Superconductivity

**Magnetism**

- Origin of magnetism
- Classification of magnetism on the basis of permeability (qualitative)
- Applications of magnetic devices: transformer cores, magnetic storage, magneto-optical recording

**Superconductivity**

- Introduction to superconductivity; Properties of superconductors: zero electrical
- resistance, critical magnetic field, persistent current, Meissner effect
- Type I and Type II superconductors
- Low and high temperature superconductors (introduction and qualitative)
- AC/DC Josephson effect; SQUID: basic construction and principle of working; Applications of SQUID
- Applications of superconductors

### Unit 6: Non Destructive Testing and Nanotechnology

**Non Destructive Testing**

- Classification of Non-destructive testing methods
- Principles of physics in Non-destructive Testing
- Advantages of Non-destructive testing methods
- Acoustic Emission Testing
- Ultrasonic (thickness measurement, flaw detection)
- Radiography testing

**Nanotechnology**

- Introduction to nanotechnology
- Quantum confinement and surface to volume ratio
- Properties of nanoparticles: optical, electrical, mechanical

Applications of nanoparticles: Medical (targeted drug delivery), electronics, space and defense,

automobile